Definition of Addiction Types

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Definition of Addiction Types

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Addiction is a medical condition that is characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. It can be thought of as a disease or biological process leading to such behaviors. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., something perceived as being positive or desirable).

Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc.). FosB a gene transcription factor, is a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all forms of behavioral and drug addictions; two decades of research into FosB role in addiction have demonstrated that addiction arises, and the associated compulsive behavior intensifies or attenuates, along with the genetic overexpression of FosB in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens; due to the causal relationship between FosB expression and addictions, it is used preclinically as an addiction biomarker. ΔFosB expression in these neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement, while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.

Addiction exacts a high toll on individuals and society as a whole through the direct adverse effects of drugs, associated healthcare costs, long-term complications (e.g., lung cancer with smoking tobacco, liver cirrhosis with drinking alcohol, or meth mouth from intravenous methamphetamine), the functional consequences of altered neural plasticity in the brain, and the consequent loss of productivity. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, and continued use despite consequences. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs).

Examples of drug and behavioral addictions include: alcoholism, amphetamine addiction, cocaine addiction, nicotine addiction, opiate addiction, food addiction, gambling addiction, and sexual addiction. The only behavioral addiction recognized by the DSM-5 is gambling addiction. The term addiction is misused frequently to refer to other compulsive behaviors or disorders, particularly dependence, in news media.

 

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Alcohol Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex among others. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body but particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system. This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, an irregular heart beat, liver failure, and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases. Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Generally women are more sensitive to alcohol's harmful physical and mental effects than men.

Both environmental factors and genetics are associated with alcoholism with about half the risk attributed to each. A person with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more likely to be alcoholic themselves. Environmental factors include social, cultural, and behavioral influences. High stress levels, anxiety, as well as inexpensive easily accessible alcohol increases risk. People may continue to drink partly to prevent or improve symptoms of withdrawal. A low level of withdrawal may last for months following stopping. Medically alcoholism is considered both a physical and mental illness. Both questionnaires and certain blood tests may detect people with possible alcoholism. Further information is then collected to confirm the diagnosis.

Prevention of alcoholism is possible by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing inexpensive treatment. Treatment may take several steps. Because of the medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled. One common method involves the use of benzodiazepine medications, such as diazepam. This can be either given while admitted to a health care institution or occasionally while a person remains in the community with close supervision. Other addictions or mental illness may complicate treatment. After detoxification support such as group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking. The medications acamprosate, disulfiram, or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.

 

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Young Adult Alcoholics

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

The young antisocial subtype comprises 21% of U.S. alcoholics. They are 26 years old, on average. More than half have antisocial personality disorder. They tended to start drinking at 15 and became alcoholics by 18 -- earlier than other subtypes. They are more likely to smoke tobacco and pot. The young antisocial subtype and the young adult subtype don't overlap.

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Young Antisocial Alcoholics

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

This second category in the types of alcoholics is also a large one, accounting for 21 percent of the total alcoholics in the study. The average age of members of this group is 26 years old, but unlike the young adult, these types of drinkers began drinking much earlier, starting at 15 and developing alcoholism by the age of 18. Half of this group has family members who are alcoholics. Half also have an antisocial disorder, making it difficult for them to seek or accept help for alcoholism. Members of this group also have an increased likelihood of drug use, especially of marijuana, cocaine and opioids. Eventually, 33 percent of this group's members will look for help in recovering from their alcoholism.

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High Functioning Alcoholics

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

A high-functioning alcoholic (HFA) is a person that maintains jobs and relationships while exhibiting alcoholism. Numbers from the Harvard School of Public Health show that 31 percent of college students show signs of alcohol abuse and 6 percent are dependent on alcohol. Thus, about 37 percent of college students may meet the new criteria for alcoholism defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Doctors hope that the new definition will help identify severe cases of alcoholism early, rather than when the problem is fully developed.

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Intermediate Familial Alcoholics

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Intermediate familial alcoholics make up 18.8 percent of all alcoholics. Nearly half (47 percent) of them have a close family member who is also an alcoholic. They have an average age of 38 years, began drinking at almost age 17, and developed alcohol dependence at an average age of 32 years. Intermediate familial alcoholics drink on an average of 172 days a year, consuming five or more drinks on 93 (54 percent) of those days, with a maximum of 10 drinks.

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Chronic Severe Alcoholics

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

An individual who is in the chronic severe type is one of only 9 percent of the population of alcoholics in the United States. This group is the most commonly thought of when stereotyping who an alcoholic is. They are typically men, are divorced, and use other substances as well as alcohol. They are often homeless or living in dysfunctional accommodation. Often they suffer from mental health issues such as depression or schizophrenia.

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Cannabis Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Cannabis, also known as marijuana and by numerous other names,a is a preparation of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 84 other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Cannabis is often consumed for its mental and physical effects, such as a "high" or "stoned" feeling, a general alteration of conscious perception, heightened mood, relaxation, and an increase in appetite.

Possible side effects include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills, red eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety. Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked and about 30 minutes when eaten as a cooked cannabis edible. They last for between two and six hours.

Cannabis is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal drug. It may also be used as part of religious or spiritual rites. In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65). In 2015, almost half of the people in the United States have tried marijuana, 12% have used it in the past year, and 7.3% have used it in the past month.

The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC. Since the early 20th century, cannabis has been subject to legal restrictions, with the possession, use, and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries of the world; the United Nations deems it the most-used illicit drug in the world. Medical cannabis refers to the physician-recommended use of cannabis, which is taking place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and 23 U.S. states. Cannabis use started to become popular in the US in the 1970s. Support for legalization has been increasing in the United States in recent years and several US states have legalized recreational or medical use.

 

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Marijuana Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Marijuana refers to the leaves, flowers, and extracts of the plant Cannabis sativa and several closely related species commonly known as hemp. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and is known by a large variety of names including cannabis, pot, weed, grass, hash, and many others. It is grown widely across the globe and is the only major recreational drug grown within the US. In addition to positive and negative intoxicating effects, marijuana abuse can also have negative effects on an individual’s physical and mental health, especially in someone who uses marijuana for a long period of time.

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Hash Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Hash, also called hashish, is a drug that is derived from a plant called hemp or cannabis sativa. The active ingredient in marijuana is THC, which is short for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This chemical and other ingredients are found in the plant's leaves and flowering parts. Hash is taken from the top of female marijuana plants, where the largest amount of THC is found.

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Depressant Addiction

Definitions of Addiction Types

Sometimes called “downers,” these drugs come in multicolored tablets and capsules or in liquid form. Some drugs in this category, such as Zyprexa, Seroquel and Haldol, are known as “major tranquilizers” or “antipsychotics,” as they are supposed to reduce the symptoms of mental illness. Depressants such as Xanax, Klonopin, Halcion and Librium are often referred to as “benzos” (short for benzodiazepines1). Other depressants, such as Amytal, Numbutal and Seconal, are classed as barbiturates—drugs that are used as sedatives and sleeping pills.

Higher doses can cause impairment of memory, judgment and coordination, irritability, paranoia,3 and suicidal thoughts. Some people experience the opposite of the intended effect, such as agitation or aggression. Using sedatives (drugs used to calm or soothe) and tranquilizers with other substances, particularly alcohol, can slow breathing and the heart rate and even lead to death.

Tolerance to many depressants can develop rapidly, with larger doses needed to achieve the same effect. The user, trying to reach the same high, may raise the dose to a level that results in coma or death by overdose. Long-term use of depressants can produce depression, chronic fatigue, breathing difficulties, sexual problems and sleep problems. As a dependency on the drug increases, cravings, anxiety or panic are common if the user is unable to get more. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, weakness and nausea. For continual and high-dose users, agitation, high body temperature, delirium, hallucinations and convulsions can occur. Unlike withdrawal from most drugs, withdrawal from depressants can be life-threatening.

These drugs can also increase the risk of high blood sugar, diabetes, and weight gain (instances of up to 100 pounds have been reported). In a study conducted by USA Today, based on Food and Drug Administration data over a four-year period, antipsychotics (a type of depressant) were the prime suspects in forty-five deaths caused by heart problems, choking, liver failure and suicide.

 

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DXM Dextromethorphan Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant that is available in over-the-counter cough medications. Dextromethorphan (DXM) is the active ingredient in most OTC cough medicines. Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the 1950s, DXM is the most widely used cough suppressant ingredient in the United States. When taken according to labeling instructions, medicines that contain DXM are safe and effective. However, when taken in excessive amounts higher than recommended doses, DXM can produce dangerous side effects.Because it is a legal drug, it can be purchased by anyone, even a preteen, except in California. There, a minor cannot purchase a cough medication containing dextromethorphan (DXM).

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GHB Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

GHB or Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (C4H8O3) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant that is commonly referred to as a “club drug” or “date rape” drug. GHB is abused by teens and young adults at bars, parties, clubs and “raves” (all night dance parties), and is often placed in alcoholic beverages. Euphoria, increased sex drive, and tranquility are reported positive effects of GHB abuse. Negative effects may include sweating, loss of consciousness (reported by 69 percent of users), nausea, hallucinations, amnesia, and coma, among other adverse effects.

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Xanax Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Xanax is the trade name of the prescription medication alprazolam, and is in a category of drugs known as benzodiazepines. The medication works by interacting with a receptor in the brain that in turn increases inhibitory brain activity, thus tempering any problematic excitement related to anxiety. As a fast-acting drug, the majority of the benefits are established within an hour after use, with the total duration of effect being at least 6 hours. Xanax is commonly abused by those seeking it for its sedative effects. Xanax is especially addictive when misused (taken recreationally or other than as directed).

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Valium Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Valium is a benzodiazepine prescribed by medical doctors and psychiatrists to treat anxiety and panic attacks. Historically, Valium has been a popular pharmaceutical agent--widely used for its muscle relaxant, anti-convulsant, and sedative properties. The substance is also known by its generic name, diazepam. Valium is a depressant drug that strengthens the effects of a neurotransmitter in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA works to slow down brain activity, so increasing GABA neurotransmission will result in less activity and reduced anxiety. Valium is a potential drug of abuse that can result in problems like physiological dependence, tolerance, and addiction when used for an extended period of time, at high doses, or for reasons other than prescribed.

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Klonopin Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Klonopin is a prescription sedative medication useful as an anti-anxiety and anti-convulsant drug. Doctors prescribe Klonopin to control or prevent seizures and reduce anxiety from panic attacks. Also known as clonazepam, this drug is a benzodiazepine--a class of drugs that is highly addictive. This substance works by slowing down certain functions of the body. As an oral medication, the drug is widely prescribed in the US because of its noted efficacy in the short-term.

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Ativan Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Ativan, also known as lorazepam is a highly-potent, immediate-acting and strong sedative that is often used to treat anxiety disorders and associated symptoms. Ativan can also be used to manage insomnia, acute seizures, and occasionally used for sedation of aggressive individuals. This benzodiazepine produces therapeutic effects via the interaction of the benzodiazepine binding cells located in the GABA receptors of the central nervous system. Although helpful for management of anxiety, this medication is not intended for long-term use as it’s both highly addictive and habit-forming. Since this medication is so addictive it should only be used by those who have a prescription and should be used directly as prescribed.

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Opiate Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Opiate, or opioid painkillers are narcotic medications prescribed by a medical doctor to manage pain in many individuals. Opioid narcotics include such medications as codeine, morphine, dihydrocodone, methadone, OxyContin, hydrocodone, and heroin. While opiate painkillers do vary in how powerful the narcotic element of the prescription medication, opiates are sedating painkillers that depress the central nervous system, slow down body functioning, and reduce physical and psychological pain. While many prescription opioid narcotics are used in the manner in which they were intended for the duration prescribed without problems, certain individuals may become addicted to the way in which narcotic painkillers make them feel.

Created from the flower of the opium poppy, opiate narcotics have been used for hundreds of years to treat pain, diarrhea, and sleeplessness. Opiate narcotics act upon the opioid receptors in the central nervous system and the brain. Prolonged usage may lead to brain damage which can stop the body from producing natural opiates – a neurotransmitter called “endorphins.” This can cause the body to become unable to manage pain naturally and lead to high amounts of pain when an individual attempts to quit using.

The treatment for marijuana abuse and dependence has many similarities to treatments for addictions to other drugs. Although there are no medications available specifically for treating marijuana dependence, professional detoxification facilities can provide a safe, supportive place for abusers to get the drug out of their systems.

Medical staff can help ensure that individuals do not hurt themselves, and sedative medications are available in case of severe anxiety or panic attacks.

Following detox, inpatient and outpatient drug rehabilitation facilities are available depending on the specific needs of the recovering person. Both types of treatment offer counseling and education to help people with addictions to adapt to a drug-free lifestyle. Aftercare programs and peer recovery organizations provide support to avoid future relapses.

 

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Heroin Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Heroin is a substance that is both illegal and extremely addictive. The substance derives from opium from the poppy plant before it is refined to morphine, then further chemically modified to become heroin. Despite its deserved negative reputation for its high risks, heroin continues to be a commonly abused drug in the US. Heroin is sold and used in a number of forms including white or brown powder, a black sticky substance (tar heroin), and solid black chunks. These different forms of heroin can be smoked, snorted, or injected under the skin, into muscle, or directly into the veins.

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OxyContin Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Oxycodone is a pain-relieving drug that is prescribed frequently to address moderate to severe pain. The substance is found alone and in combination with other pain relievers in a tablet form. Oxycodone is synthesized, in part, by chemical modification of opioid precursor molecules which are obtained from the opium poppy. Despite being manufactured in a lab, oxycodone impacts the user in ways similar to other legal and illegal opioids. Also, like other opiate and opioid drugs, oxycodone is capable of delivering a powerful high—rendering it a potential drug of abuse for an alarming number of individuals.

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Fentanyl Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Fentanyl is one of the strongest opiate drugs on the market. It is not a long-lasting drug so it is often used for surgery recovery and for breakthrough pain—meaning that when a person is already taking an opiate but has temporary pain that breaks through the opiate barrier, they may be given fentanyl.

Time-release formulations for fentanyl provide strong pain relief over time. They come in two forms—a lollipop and a patch. Fentanyl also comes as a small piece of film that can be dissolved under the tongue and a pill meant to be lodged inside the cheek. In hospital settings, fentanyl can be injected. For the individual abusing the drug outside a hospital, this is highly dangerous, as the difference between a therapeutic dose and a deadly dose is very small.

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Hydrocodone Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Hydrocodone is an opioid analgesic (painkiller) drug – included in the formulation of many narcotic prescription painkillers that are most often prescribed to control moderate to severe pain. As an opiate drug, it is in the same family as morphine and oxycodone; like many other opioid substances, it has a high potential to lead to dependency and addiction if it is abused. It's indicated for the management of pain that would not be well controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or other, non-narcotic analgesic options. Doctors typically prescribe this drug only for patients with severe pain resulting from surgery, various disease processes or injury.

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Percocet Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Percocet is prescribed for short-term relief of moderate to severe pain that is not typically chronic in nature (i.e., post-surgical pain, pain from a sustained injury, etc.). Like heroin and morphine, Percocet affects the brain and the central nervous system, changing the way the brain perceives pain.

Percocet acts at opioid receptors throughout the body to initiate a cascade of chemical events that, ultimately:

Elicit a dopamine response in key regions of the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the brain's reward system circuitry--instrumental in delivering feelings of pleasure and motivation, as well as reinforcing behaviors that initiated the dopamine release to begin with.

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Morphine Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Morphine is the classic opiate painkiller, the standard by which other opiates are measured. While other opiates are more often the drug of choice of opiate addicts, morphine in pill or liquid form is still sought to satisfy cravings. When a person is either abusing morphine or even taking it properly, they are likely to be constipated. All opiates tend to slow down the ability of the body to eliminate solid wastes so some people on painkillers seek medications that will help them fight constipation. Opiates tend to make a person nauseated and they may vomit after taking the drug. Opiates slow breathing, which is what usually kills a person who has taken too much of the drug. A person on these drugs tends to be sleepy and they may dope off.

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Methadone Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Methadone Hydrochloride is an opioid (a synthetic opiate) that was originally synthesised by German pharmaceutical companies during the Second World War. Methadone was first marketed as ‘Dolophine’ and was used as an analgesic (a painkiller) for the treatment of severe pain. It is still occasionally used for pain relief.Methadone is now primarily used today for the treatment of narcotic addiction. The effects of methadone are longer-lasting than those of morphine-based drugs. Methadone’s effects can last up to 24 hours, thereby permitting administration only once a day in heroin detoxification and maintenance programs.

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Dilaudid Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

There are many opiate painkillers, including morphine, methadone, oxycodone and hydrocodone. Dilaudid’s generic name is hydromorphone. It is another painkiller in the opiate class so the signs and symptoms of use are the same as other opiates. But unlike other opiates, the preferred way to abuse it is with intravenous injection. When abused orally or when snorted, the drug is not as effective as other opiates. But it will addict a person just as effectively as other opiates and when that person is addicted, it will be just as difficult to recover from Dilaudid addiction as from addiction to any other opiate.

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PCP Phencyclidine Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

PCP stands for phencylidine, a crystalline synthetic drug. At one time, it was used as an anesthetic but the severe side effects caused it to fall out of use. In addition to deadening pain, there’s a long list of signs of use, most of which can be unpleasant and some that can be downright dangerous. Powdered PCP can be snorted or mixed with marijuana or another green herb and smoked. Some people dissolve PCP or get it in liquid form and dip a marijuana cigarette in the solution. The cigarette is then dried and it can be sold or smoked later. This type of joint is known as a “dipper.” Very small quantities of PCP are normally used at any one time, with 5 to 10 milligrams being typical.

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Stimulant Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Stimulant medications including amphetamines (e.g., Adderall) and methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin and Concerta) are often prescribed to treat children, adolescents, or adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

People with ADHD persistently have more difficulty paying attention or are more hyperactive or impulsive than other people the same age. This pattern of behavior usually becomes evident when a child is in preschool or the first grades of elementary school; the average age of onset of ADHD symptoms is 7 years. Many people’s ADHD symptoms improve during adolescence or as they grow older, but the disorder can persist into adulthood.

The treatment for marijuana abuse and dependence has many similarities to treatments for addictions to other drugs. Although there are no medications available specifically for treating marijuana dependence, professional detoxification facilities can provide a safe, supportive place for abusers to get the drug out of their systems.

Medical staff can help ensure that individuals do not hurt themselves, and sedative medications are available in case of severe anxiety or panic attacks.

Following detox, inpatient and outpatient drug rehabilitation facilities are available depending on the specific needs of the recovering person. Both types of treatment offer counseling and education to help people with addictions to adapt to a drug-free lifestyle. Aftercare programs and peer recovery organizations provide support to avoid future relapses.

 

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Amphetamine Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Amphetamine is a strong stimulant that has been used medically for situations when a person needs to be more alert, as in narcolepsy, a health problem that causes a person to fall asleep at any time. It has also been given to pilots and soldiers to keep them awake and alert for long hours. It does its job in these situations, but the side effects of this drug can be dangerous and damaging.

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Bath Salts Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

The term "bath salts" refers to a family of designer recreational drugs that contain one or more synthetic chemicals related to cathinone--a stimulant found in the khat plant, with effects similar to amphetamine.

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Adderall Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Adderall is an addictive prescription stimulant with effects similar to cocaine. People regularly taking Adderall at unprescribed doses are at a high risk of becoming addicted. Adderall works by increasing dopamine levels in the brain. Dopamine, the body’s “feel good” chemical, creates a rewarding effect. Although dopamine occurs naturally, drugs like Adderall produce unnaturally high levels of it. This can cause users to come back for more.

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Crack Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Crack cocaine is a strong stimulant that energizes the entire central nervous system and places damaging stresses on the heart, lungs and brain. It is also very often associated with a dramatic deterioration of the quality of life.

When crack cocaine is smoked, the muscles tense and the heart beats faster. The person experiences exhilaration as a result of the release of specific mood hormones.

At the same time that the heart beats faster, the blood vessels constrict, resulting in elevated blood pressure. At any time, this change can result in a heart attack, stroke or cardiac arrest.

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Ecstasy MDMA Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

MDMA users may encounter problems similar to those experienced by amphetamine and cocaine users, including addiction. In addition to its rewarding effects, MDMA’s psychological effects can include confusion, depression, sleep problems, anxiety, and paranoia during, and sometimes weeks after, taking the drug. Physical effects can include muscle tension, involuntary teeth-clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating.

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Methamphetamine Addictions

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Methamphetamine, commonly referred to as “meth,” is a highly-addictive neurotoxic stimulant that is often referred to as “the most dangerous drug on earth,” due to the wide availability, ease of use, and ability to manufacture the drug out of ordinary household products. Most often, methamphetamine comes in two forms, “Crystal Meth” and “powdered meth,” both produce similar effects on the user.

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Cocaine Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is associated with the generation of 'euphoric' emotions, the regulation of movement, and the processing of reward cues. However, it is also associated with a considerable potential for dependence and abuse.

Cocaine is attractive as a recreational substance due to the perceived positive effects on mood, motivation and energy. Someone abusing cocaine may smoke, snort, or take it intravenously (via injection).

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Anabolic Steroids Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Anabolic steroids are prescription medications often abused by people who want to look and be more fit. Even though steroids don’t produce euphoria like a typical addictive substance, those who regularly abuse these drugs are at risk of becoming addicted. People who take steroids for a prolonged period of time disrupt natural hormonal balances in their bodies. When someone addicted to steroids suddenly stops taking the drugs, they can become depressed and even suicidal due to these hormonal imbalances.

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Hallucinogen Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that alter perception (awareness of surrounding objects and conditions), thoughts, and feelings. They cause hallucinations, or sensations and images that seem real though they are not. Hallucinogens can be found in some plants and mushrooms (or their extracts) or can be human-made. People have used hallucinogens for centuries, mostly for religious rituals. 

The treatment for marijuana abuse and dependence has many similarities to treatments for addictions to other drugs. Although there are no medications available specifically for treating marijuana dependence, professional detoxification facilities can provide a safe, supportive place for abusers to get the drug out of their systems.

Medical staff can help ensure that individuals do not hurt themselves, and sedative medications are available in case of severe anxiety or panic attacks.

Following detox, inpatient and outpatient drug rehabilitation facilities are available depending on the specific needs of the recovering person. Both types of treatment offer counseling and education to help people with addictions to adapt to a drug-free lifestyle. Aftercare programs and peer recovery organizations provide support to avoid future relapses.

 

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Inhalants Addictions

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Many products readily found in the home or workplace—such as spray paints, markers, glues, and cleaning fluids—contain volatile substances that have psychoactive (mind-altering) properties when inhaled. People do not typically think of these products as drugs because they were never intended for that purpose. However, these products are sometimes abused in that way. They are especially (but not exclusively) abused by young children and adolescents, and are the only class of substance abused more by younger than by older teens. 

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Mescaline Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Because the signs and symptoms of mescaline abuse can be obvious and uncontrollable, most young people who abuse this drug will do so only in the company of other people who tolerate drug abuse. Mescaline abuse causes severe changes in one’s perceptions and behavior and a person may not be able to tell the difference between their fantasy or hallucinated world and the real world. Therefore parents may not have the opportunity to see the signs and symptoms of mescaline abuse while the person is high on the drug. Being high on the drug is referred to as “tripping.”

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Salvia Divinorum

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Salvia Divinorum is a leafy herb that is usually smoked to produce manic and hallucinogenic effects. When smoked, it has almost immediate effects. The user stops relating to the environment and usually begins to laugh uncontrollably. He or she may stumble around or fall down to the ground. The high is quite brief, peaking in five to ten minutes although the effects may continue to wane for another half hour.one of the problems with this drug is that there is very little conclusive information on its actions, short-range effects and long-range dangers. Any of the usual sources of information on addictiveness and dangers come up short when it comes to salvia.

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LSD Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

While LSD can be a dangerous drug, and one that is mostly abused by young people, it may be an advantage that the signs are LSD abuse are so distinctive, as this makes them easier for parents or loved ones to detect this type of drug abuse. LSD is sold in pills, capsules or in liquid form. The liquid is soaked into specially prepared blotting paper that is often imprinted with cartoon characters and perforated. Each tiny square is one dose of LSD. The blotting paper is held in the user’s mouth until all the drug has been absorbed.

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Ketamine Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Ketamine (which is also referred to as K, Special K, Vitamin K, green, and jet) is a tranquilizer (anesthetic) that has some medical use with humans but is more commonly used in veterinary medicine. Ketamine is a “club drug,” a hallucinogen, and a dissociative drug. Other common dissociative hallucinogens are PCP and nitrous oxide (laughing gas). When abused for recreational purposes, Ketamine is commonly snorted in powder form, or injected in liquid form.

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Process Addiction

Definition of Addiction Types

Process addictions are addictions to activities or processes such as gambling, eating, tanning, video/gaming, spending, sex, Internet surfing and work as opposed to a “substance addiction” like that of drugs or alcohol. The prevailing view is that process addictions are “real” addictions and that they share many commonalities with drug addiction.

People develop process addictions when they become addicted to the feelings of performing a certain action. When people have process addictions, they often have fears that they attempt to control by repeating certain actions. These actions are called compulsive behaviors, and a lot of people struggle with them. Some people even try to deal with process addictions alone, because they think that no one will understand their conditions. However, process addictions and the compulsive behaviors they cause are best managed with professional treatment, so seek outside help to address your psychological issues.

 

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Video Games Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Video game addiction is hypothesized to be an excessive or compulsive use of computer games or video games, which interferes with a person's everyday life. Video game addiction may present itself as compulsive game-playing; social isolation; mood swings; diminished imagination; and hyper-focus on in-game achievements, to the exclusion of other events in life.  While Internet gaming disorder is proposed as a disorder, it is still discussed how much this disorder is caused by the gaming activity itself, or whether it is to some extent an effect of other disorders. Contradictions in research examining video game addictiveness may reflect more general inconsistencies in video game research: For example, while some research has linked violent video games with increased aggressive behavior other research has failed to find evidence for such links.

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Pornography Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Pornography addiction is an addiction model of compulsive sexual activity with concurrent use of pornographic material, despite negative consequences to one's physical, mental, social, or financial well-being. The rewarding and reinforcing (i.e., addictive) properties of cybersex have been evidenced using cue reactivity experiments with pornographic cues in humans, which supports the classification of cybersex addiction as a true behavioral addiction.

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Sex Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Sexual addiction, also known as sex addiction, is a state characterized by compulsive participation or engagement in sexual activity, particularly sexual intercourse, despite negative consequences. Proponents of a diagnostic model for sexual addiction, as defined here, consider it to be one of several sex-related disorders within an umbrella concept known as hypersexual disorder. In clinical diagnostics, the term sexual dependence may also refer to a conceptual model that is used to assess people who report being unable to control their sexual urges, behaviors, or thoughts. Related models of pathological sexual behavior include hypersexuality, erotomania, nymphomania, satyriasis, Don Juanism (or Don Juanitaism), and paraphilia-related disorders. Clinicians, such as psychiatrists, sociologists, sexologists, and other specialists, have differing opinions on the classification and clinical diagnosis of sexual addiction. As a result, "sexual addiction" does not exist as a clinical entity in either the DSM or ICD medical classifications of diseases and medical disorders.

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Food Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

A food addiction or eating addiction is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.[ Sugary and high fat food have both been shown to increase the expression of ΔFosB, an addiction biomarker, in the D1-type medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens; however, there is very little research on the synaptic plasticity from compulsive food consumption, a phenomenon which is known to be caused by ΔFosB overexpression. Psychological dependence has also been observed with the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms when consumption of these foods stops by replacement with low fat or sugar food. Professionals address this disorder by means of behavior therapy.

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Shopping Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Compulsive shopping and spending is described as a pattern of chronic, repetitive purchasing that becomes difficult to stop and ultimately results in harmful consequences. It is defined as an impulse control disorder and has features similar to other addictive disorders without involving the use of an intoxicating drug. There are many social and cultural factors that tend to increase the addictive potential of shopping and spending. The easy availability of credit and the material focus of society in general, encourages people to accumulate possessions now and worry about financial responsibility later. Purchasing has been made easier with the availability of on-line shopping and television stations devoted to buying goods 24 hours a day. 

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Gambling Addiction

Reflections - Definition of Addiction Types

Compulsive gambling, also called gambling disorder, is the uncontrollable urge to keep gambling despite the toll it takes on your life. Gambling means that you're willing to risk something you value in the hope of getting something of even greater value. Gambling can stimulate the brain's reward system much like drugs such as alcohol can, leading to addiction. If you're prone to compulsive gambling, you may continually chase bets, hide your behavior, deplete savings, accumulate debt, or even resort to theft or fraud to support your addiction. Compulsive gambling is a serious condition that can destroy lives. Although treating compulsive gambling can be challenging, many compulsive gamblers have found help through professional treatment.

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